Dr. Akoto Osei was in the cabinet of former President John Agyekum Kufuor as the Minister of State for Finance and Economic Planning.
Before becoming the finance minister under ex-President Kufuor, he served as the deputy minister for the sector.
In May, 2017, President Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo named Dr. Anthony Akoto Osei as part of his 19 ministers who would form his cabinet as the Minister for Monitoring and Evaluation.
He was a former Member of Parliament (MP) for the Old Tafo Constituency in the Ashanti Region. While in Parliament, he served as the Ranking Member of the Committee on Finance, and a member of the Interior and Defence committees of the House.
He obtained a Ph.D. from Howard University in 1987, and a Master of Arts degree in Applied Economics from the American University in 1980. He had earlier obtained a Bachelor of Arts (BA) Degree in Economics from Oberlin College in Ohio in 1978.
On 27 March 2002, he became a member of the Management Board of Merchant Bank (Ghana) Ltd. Previously, he worked as Associate Professor at Dollard University (USA) and previously as a Research Assistant at the Centre for Policy Analysis (Ghana).